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Melanoma and neural system tumor syndrome
Melanoma and neural system tumor syndrome is an extremely rare tumor association characterized by dual predisposition to melanoma and neural system tumors (typically astrocytoma; see this term).
Prevalence and incidence rates are not known. Fewer than 20 affected families have been reported to date. Cases have been reported from France, Italy, the UK and the USA.
In reported families, affected individuals had cutaneous melanoma in association with dysplastic nevi, astrocytoma, benign or malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, neurofibroma, medulloblastoma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, glioma, and meningioma (see these terms). In some cases, melanoma was described first followed by nervous system tumors, and in other cases, melanoma was a secondary cancer.
The etiology of this tumor association is unknown. Genetic mutations or germline deletions are thought to underlie this cancer susceptibility syndrome.
Male-to-male transmission was reported in one family but inheritance patterns are not clearly characterized. The increased risk appears to be found in both first- and second-degree relatives.