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Cenani-Lenz syndrome (CLS) is a congenital malformation syndrome that associates a complex syndactyly of the hands with malformations of the forearm bones and similar manifestations in the lower limbs.
Fewer than 30 cases have been described and the exact incidence has not been evaluated. The majority of cases occurred in related families.
Classical CLS is characterized by the almost symmetrical presence of a total fusion of fingers and synostosis of the hand bones, giving the hands a mitten-like appearance. A variant of the syndrome, with oligodactyly and partial syndactyly, has been reported. The following features characterize the syndrome: carpal, metacarpal and digital synostoses, disorganization of the carpal bones, numeric reduction of the digital rays and toe syndactyly. Other features are radioulnar synostosis with shortening of the radius and ulna, brachymesomelia, radius head dislocation and metatarsal synostoses. The syndrome affects both the upper and lower limbs but, in general, the latter are less severely affected. Associated malformations (renal hypoplasia and vertebral and hemivertebral anomalies) have occasionally been reported. A few publications associate CLS with other, more frequent, forms of syndactyly. Mild facial dysmorphism (ptosis, high-arched palate, high, broad and prominent forehead, hypertelorism, flat nasal bridge, down slanting palpebral fissures, short nose, short prominent philtrum and malar hypoplasia) has been described in isolated cases.
The disease is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations of the LRP4 gene (11p12-p11.2) have been identified. A heterozygous duplication of 1.7 Mb covering the GREM1 and FMN1 genes has also been reported in a CLS-like form of the syndrome.
Diagnosis is essentially clinical.
CLS can be distinguished clinically from other limb malformations.
Diagnosis can be suspected antenatally by ultrasonography. As an autosomal recessive syndrome, recurrence risk for CLS is 25% for a subsequent pregnancy.
Management and treatment
Surgical treatment with reconstruction of an individualized finger is recommended but the functional results of syndactyly release may be unsatisfactory.
Functional prognosis depends on the specific limb anomalies of the patient.
- Summary information
- Polski (2011, pdf)