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Blepharonasofacial malformation syndrome
Blepharonasofacial syndrome is a rare otorhinolaryngological malformation syndrome characterized by a distinctive mask-like facial dysmorphism, lacrimal duct obstruction, extrapyramidal features, digital malformations and intellectual disability.
Blepharonasofacial syndrome has been reported in 3 families to date.
The facies has a mask-like appearance due to weakness of facial muscles, and lacrimal duct obstruction is characteristic. Clinical features also include telecanthus (with temporal displacement of lacrimal puncta), bulky nose, broad nasal bridge, sometimes a hypoplastic midface, longitudinal cheek furrows, trapezoidal upper lip and malformation of the ears. Intellectual disability, cutaneous syndactyly, torsion dystonia, increased deep tendon reflexes, Babinski sign, poor coordination, and joint laxity are also observed.
Inheritance is thought to be either autosomal or X-linked dominant.