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Adult-onset dystonia-parkinsonism is a rare neurodegenerative disease usually presenting before the age of 30 and which is characterized by dystonia, L-dopa-responsive parkinsonism, pyramidal signs and rapid cognitive decline.
Prevalence is unknown. Only 14 cases have been reported to date.
Disease onset occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood (usually before the age of 30) and usually presents with parkinsonism (tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia), dystonia and rapid cognitive decline. Eye movement abnormalities (supranuclear vertical gaze palsy, eyelid opening apraxia), pyramidal tract signs, and psychiatric features such as depression and personality changes have also been reported in some patients. Dopaminergic treatment is initially successful with regard to parkinsonism, but the development of prominent dyskinesias often follows.
Adult-onset dystonia-parkinsonism is caused by mutations in the phospholipase A2, group VI (PLA2G6) gene located on chromosome 22q13.1.
Adult-onset dystonia-parkinsonism is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, and genetic counseling is possible and recommended.