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Sporadic infantile bilateral striatal necrosis
Sporadic infantile bilateral necrosis is the sporadic form of infantile bilateral striatal necrosis (IBSN; see this term), a syndrome of bilateral symmetric spongy degeneration of the caudate nucleaus, putamen and globus pallidus characterized by developmental regression, choreoathetosis and dystonia progressing to spastic quadriparesis.
- Acute bilateral striatal necrosis
- Sporadic IBSN
- Sporadic infantile striatonigral degeneration
- Sporadic infantile striatonigral necrosis
- Prevalence: 1-9 / 1 000 000
- Inheritance: Not applicable
- Age of onset: All ages
- ICD-10: G23.2
- OMIM: -
- UMLS: -
- MeSH: -
- GARD: -
- MedDRA: -
Prevalence has been estimated at 1-9/1,000,000.
Sporadic IBSN can occur any time from the neonatal period through childhood and even in adolescence. Clinical features include choreoathetosis, dystonia, rigidity, spasticity, dysphagia, optic atrophy, intellectual deficit, developmental regression of motor and verbal skills, failure to thrive, myoclonus, quadriparesis, cerebellar ataxia and nystagmus.
The disease is associated with abrupt neurologic dysfunction following an acute systemic febrile illness such as a mycoplasma, measles or streptococcus infection.
Diagnosis is based on clinical observation of choreoathetoid movements of the face, trunk and extremities and evidence of basal ganglia degeneration on CT and MRI images.
Differential diagnoses include Wilson's disease, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, Leigh disease, juvenile Huntington chorea, methylmalonic aciduria, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency, glutaric acidemia I (see these terms), carbon monoxide intoxication, small vessel arteritis and trauma.
Management and treatment
Treatment is based on treatment of the causal infection.
Prognosis is variable, with either gradual improvement in symptoms and complete recovery, observed after recovery from the infection, or severe neurological sequelae.