Search for a rare disease
Other search option(s)
Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, infantile type
Infantile pyruvate carboxylase (PC) deficiency (Type A) is a rare, severe form of PC deficiency characterized by infantile-onset, mild to moderate lactic acidemia, and a generally severe course.
ORPHA:353308Classification level: Subtype of disorder
- Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency type A
- Prevalence: Unknown
- Inheritance: Autosomal recessive
- Age of onset: Infancy
- ICD-10: E74.4
- OMIM: 266150
- UMLS: -
- MeSH: -
- GARD: -
- MedDRA: -
The specific prevalence of type A pyruvate carboxylase deficiency is not known but it has been reported most often in Native Americans from North American Algonquian-speaking groups including the Mi'kmaq, Cree, and Ojibwa tribes. In these groups, the carrier frequency may be as high as 1/10.
Patients with Type A PC deficiency usually first present with symptoms at the age of two to five months, often after normal early development. Clinical manifestations include mild to moderate metabolic acidosis with acute vomiting and tachypnea, failure to thrive, apathy, delayed intellectual and motor development, hypotonia, pyramidal dysfunction, ataxia, nystagmus and seizures. Renal tubular acidosis has also been reported.
PC deficiency is caused by mutations in the PC gene (11q13.4-q13.5).
Biochemical testing shows hypoglycemia and ketosis, increased alanine and proline levels, but normal citrulline and lysine levels, along with a normal lactate-to-pyruvate ratio despite acidemia, and normal hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate (H/A) ratio in plasma. Blood lactic acid levels are usually between 2 and 10 mmol/l. PC enzyme activity assay demonstrating deficiency of the PC enzyme in fibroblasts is also diagnostic, along with mutations in the PC gene identified via molecular genetic testing.
PC deficiency is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.
Most affected patients die in infancy or in early childhood. Surviving children require special care and schooling.