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Perlman syndrome is characterized principally by polyhydramnios, neonatal macrosomia, bilateral renal tumours (hamartomas with or without nephroblastomatosis), hypertrophy of the islets of Langerhans and facial dysmorphism.
ORPHA:2849Classification level: Disorder
So far, about 30 patients have been reported in the literature.
The facial dysmorphism is considered as characteristic with upsweeping anterior scalp hair, a depressed nasal bridge, hypotonic appearance with an open mouth, a prominent everted upper lip, and mild micrognathia. Agenesis of the corpus callosum, choroid plexus haemangiomas, cleft palate, dextroposition of the heart, interrupted aortic arch, diaphragmatic hernia, visceromegaly including nephromegaly, hepatomegaly, cardiomegaly, thymus hyperplasia, hepatic fibrosis with porto-portal bridging, abdominal muscular hypoplasia, distal ileal atresia, and cryptorchidism were also described in some patients and maybe components of this syndrome. Hyperinsulinism appears to be an important feature of this disease and may be a preventable cause of death.
The principle differential diagnoses are the Beckwith-Wiedemann (BWS) and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndromes (see these terms): mutations the GPC3 gene were excluded as being causative anomalies in several publications and genetic or epigenetic alterations of the 11p15 region (involved in BWS) have never been reported in patients with Perlman syndrome, despite the strong phenotypic similarities between the two syndromes.
Prenatal diagnosis may be oriented by ultrasonography searching for macroglossia and renal anomalies (cysts or hypertrophy).
The syndrome appears to be inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.
Management and treatment
Management is supportive and should be multidisciplinary.
The prognosis for Perlman syndrome is poor with a high mortality rate, especially in the neonatal period, due to sepsis or progressive respiratory insufficiency. Among the infants who survived beyond the neonatal period, two thirds developed a Wilms' tumor and most had some degree of developmental delay. However, one girl was reported to be alive at the age of 9 and displayed normal psychomotor development.
- Summary information
- Greek (2009, pdf)