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Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia
A rare myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by a proliferation primarily of granulocytic and monocytic lineages with infiltration of the liver and spleen, among other organs. Blasts and promonocytes account for less than 20% of white blood cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow. Erythroid and megakaryocytic abnormalities are often present. BCR-ABL1 fusion is absent, while somatic mutations in genes of the RAS pathway or monosomy 7 may be found. The condition may also occur in the context of neurofibromatosis type 1 or Noonan syndrome-like disorder. Children of less than three years are predominantly affected, with a clear male preponderance. Most patients present with constitutional symptoms, signs of infection, and hepatosplenomegaly.
ORPHA:86834Classification level: Disorder