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Zimmermann-Laband syndrome (ZLS) is a rare disorder characterized by gingival fibromatosis, coarse facial appearance, and absence or hypoplasia of nails or terminal phalanges of hands and feet.
ORPHA:3473Classification level: Disorder
Forty-four patients have been reported to date.
Coarse facial appearance includes bulbous soft nose, thickened lips, thick and floppy ears and gingival hypertrophy or fibromatosis. The syndrome has a highly variable clinical expression, and other possible features include hyperextensibility of joints, hepatosplenomegaly, hypertrichosis and hearing loss. Intellectual deficit is occasional and usually mild to moderate. The overgrown gingival tissues can affect the ability to speak.
The genetic basis is unknown. Mapping of breakpoints of two translocations t(3;8) and t(3;17) found in two patients with the typical clinical features of Zimmermann-Laband syndrome defined a common breakpoint region located in 3p14.3 but the lack of a specific coding-sequence lesion in the common region suggests that either some other type of genetic defect in this vicinity, or an alteration elsewhere in the genome, could be responsible for ZLS. Autosomal dominant inheritance has been suggested.
The differential diagnosis includes other defined syndromes of hirsutism and coarsening of the face. Isolated gingival fibromatosis has been documented as a dominantly transmissible trait.
Management and treatment
Treatment consists of surgical removal of the hyperplasic fibrous tissue and appropriate orthodontic treatment to improve esthetic appearance and eruption of the non-erupted teeth.
Prognosis is dominated by the risk of recurrence, which is high. Physical systemic evaluation is essential. The syndrome is not life-threatening.