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German syndrome

Disease definition

German syndrome is an autosomal recessive arthrogryposis syndrome, described in 5 cases. Three of the four known families with affected children were Ashkenazi Jews. German syndrome is characterized by arthrogryposis, hypotonia-hypokinesia sequence, and lymphedema. Patients present distinct craniofacial appearance (tall forehead and ''carp''-shaped mouth, cleft palate), contractures, severe hypotonia manifesting as motor delay, and swallowing difficulties. The disease has a severe morbidity and mortality rate and survivors present a small stature, hypotonia, frequent upper respiratory infections, and psychomotor delay. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1987.


Classification level: Disorder
  • Synonym(s):
    • Hypotonia-arthrogryposis-facial dysmorphism-lymphedema syndrome
  • Prevalence: <1 / 1 000 000
  • Inheritance: Autosomal recessive 
  • Age of onset: Neonatal
  • ICD-10: Q87.8
  • OMIM: 231080
  • UMLS: C3887495
  • MeSH: C562543
  • GARD: -
  • MedDRA: -
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