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African trypanosomiasis

Disease definition

A rare vector-borne parasitic disease caused by a protozoa of the Trypanosoma genus transmitted by the bite of a tsetse fly (genus Glossina), that is found under its chronic form (average duration of 3 years) in western and central Africa (in case of the T. brucei gambiense sub-species), and under its acute form (lasting from few weeks to 6 months) in eastern and southern Africa (in case of the T. brucei rhodesiense sub-species). HAT comprises an initial hemo-lymphatic stage characterized by fever, weakness, musculoskeletal pain, anemia, and lymphadenopathy, along with dermatologic, cardiac and endocrine complications or hepatosplenomegaly, followed by a meningo-encephalitic stage characterized by neurologic involvement (sleep disturbances, psychiatric disorders, seizures) that progresses, in the absence of treatment, towards a fatal meningoencephalitis.


Classification level: Disorder
  • Synonym(s):
    • Sleeping sickness
  • Prevalence: Unknown
  • Inheritance: Not applicable 
  • Age of onset: All ages
  • ICD-10: B56.0  B56.1  B56.9
  • ICD-11: 1F51  1F51.0  1F51.00  1F51.0Y  1F51.1  1F51.10  1F51.1Y  1F51.Y
  • OMIM: -
  • UMLS: C0041228
  • MeSH: D014353
  • GARD: 7826
  • MedDRA: 10001461
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