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Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal

Disease definition

Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal is a rare epithelial intestinal neoplasm, arising from squamous epithelial cells in the anal canal, with variable macroscopic appearance, ranging from small, benign lesions (that mimick fissures, hemorrhoids or anorectal fistulae) to a large, exophytic or ulcerating tumor localized within the anal canal. Patients may be asymptomatic or present difficulty to defecate, anal bleeding, pain and/or discharge, and often have a history of chronic anal fistulae and abscesses, Crohn's disease, hemorrhoids, or, especially in younger patients, immunosuppression (such as HIV infection). Association with HPV infection is commonly reported.


Classification level: Disorder
  • Synonym(s): -
  • Prevalence: -
  • Inheritance: Not applicable 
  • Age of onset: Adult
  • ICD-10: C21.1
  • ICD-11: 2C00.3
  • OMIM: -
  • UMLS: C4301960
  • MeSH: -
  • GARD: -
  • MedDRA: -
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